They are tales truthful firmly engrained successful nan nationalist consciousness that it seems ridiculous to declare they aren't true.
France's decadent past queen, Marie Antoinette, said 'let them eat cake' successful consequence to nan plight of nan poor.
The Vikings marauded astir Europe successful nan Middle Ages whilst wearing majestic helmets topped pinch horns.
The last words of British leader Admiral Horatio Nelson were 'kiss me, Hardy'.
But, arsenic a caller book explains, each of nan supra alleged facts – on pinch 98 others – are thing but.
Fake History: 101 Things That Never Happened, is by historiographer Jo Hedwig Teeuwisse, who has built a immense societal media pursuing arsenic nan 'Fake History Hunter'.
Below, MailOnline delves into immoderate of nan claims from history that galore still believe.
Marie Antoinette said 'Let them eat cake'
It is simply a story that typified nan hedonism of nan French king and queen, arsenic mean group were starving. When Marie Antoinette - woman of Louis XVI - was told that nan mediocre couldn't bargain bread, she is said to person replied: 'Let them eat cake!' Above: American character Kirsten Dunst is seen portraying a very hedonistic type of nan French Queen successful nan 2006 movie Marie Antoinette
It is simply a story that typified nan hedonism of nan French king and queen, arsenic mean group were starving.
When Marie Antoinette, woman of Louis XVI, was told that nan mediocre of France couldn't bargain bread, she is said to person replied: 'Let them eat cake!'
Infuriated by her remarks, nan group triggered nan French Revolution – cutting disconnected nan heads of nan king and queen successful nan process.
The truth is that location is nary grounds Antoinette ever made specified a remark. Ms Teeuwisse tells really nary 1 moreover claimed she said it until 'long aft her death'.
Instead, Antoinette – contempt her decadent manner – did show interest for nan poor.
The caller book reveals really she told her mother successful a missive successful 1775: 'It is astatine nan aforesaid clip awesome to beryllium truthful good received 2 months aft nan riots and successful spite of nan precocious value of breadstuff which unluckily continues.
There is nary grounds Antoinette ever made specified a remark. Ms Teeuwisse tells really nary 1 moreover claimed she said it until 'long aft her death'
'It is definite that erstwhile group who are suffering dainty america truthful well, we are moreover much obligated to activity for their happiness.'
The barroom building came from a communicative written by philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau. He claimed a 'great princess' responded to news of location being nary breadstuff for nan mediocre by saying 'then fto them eat brioches'.
Ms Teeuwisse points retired that nan princess was not named, and brioche is not cake.
The communicative was written betwixt 1766 and 1767, erstwhile Antoinette would person been aged astir 11 and surviving successful Austria.
The Vikings had horns connected their helmets
It has agelong been a belief among many: nan Vikings had horns connected their helmets.
The pervasiveness of this was typified erstwhile a protester who stormed nan US Capitol building successful 2021 was described arsenic having a 'Viking helmet' aliases 'Viking horns' because of his bizarre prime of caput gear.
But Ms Teeuwisse says location is 'no existent evidence' of Viking helmets pinch horns ever moreover existing.
Instead, it is improbable that nan Scandinavian warriors, who raided and settled crossed Europe from nan eighth to nan 11th centuries, favoured fancy helmets astatine all.
It has agelong been a belief among many: nan Vikings had horns connected their helmets
Only 1 complete helmet has ever been recovered astatine a funeral site, and it did not person horns.
Ms Teeuwisse says nan thought of Viking horned helmets 'didn't really popular up until nan Victorian era'.
At nan time, nan Middle Ages were 'extremely popular'. In his epic philharmonic dramas, composer Richard Wagner's visions of history featured men pinch horned and moreover winged helmets.
This fuelled nan craze for nan depiction of nan Vikings successful specified a way.
Napoleon was unusually short
The presumption that Napoleon was short firmly ingrained successful nationalist consciousness.
So overmuch truthful that nan marauding French emperor's sanction was springiness to nan 'Napoleon complex' – nan word applied to short group who are allegedly domineering to dress up for their deficiency of height.
The belief that Napoleon was vertically challenged stems successful ample portion from nan activity of caricaturist James Gillray, whose cartoons successful nan precocious 18th period depicted nan ruler arsenic being tiny.
Ms Teeuwisse points retired really he enjoyed portraying 'Little Boney' arsenic 'tiny and prone to temper tantrums for illustration a toddler'.
In reality, Napoleon was of mean tallness for his period. He was angry astatine Gillray's depiction of him and moreover tried to get nan British authorities to do thing astir it.
The presumption that Napoleon was short firmly ingrained successful nationalist consciousness. Above: A animation by James Gillray, showing Napoleon successful nan thenar of nan manus of King George III
Ms Teeuwisse adds: 'This inevitably fuelled nan fire: location he was, nan awesome powerful emperor, stamping his small feet because of immoderate drawings.'
The historiographer explains that knowing precisely really gangly Napoleon was is challenging, because aged British and French systems of measurement utilized different standards.
His expert wrote successful 1802 that nan emperor was 5 ft 2 inches, which erstwhile converted to nan British strategy would beryllium 5 ft six.
Equally, Ms Teeuwisse points retired that nary 1 who met him is recorded arsenic having noted that he was unusually short
The presumption that Napoleon was short firmly ingrained successful nationalist consciousness. Above: Another Gillray cartoon
Hugo Boss designed nan Nazi uniforms
Another celebrated story is nan declare that manner location Hugo Boss designed nan uniforms worn by nan Nazis.
The firm's founder, Hugo Ferdinand Boss, was a personnel of nan Nazi statement and did manufacture immoderate of nan Nazis' uniforms, including their infamous brownish shirts.
But Ms Teeuwisse explains that he was not a designer and had nary domiciled successful really they looked.
Another celebrated story is nan declare that manner location Hugo Boss designed nan uniforms worn by nan Nazis. Above: German illustrations of immoderate of nan Nazi unforms
Instead, his firm – past little-known – was 1 of galore producing apparel for nan Nazis.
The writer asks: 'Why connected world would nan Nazi statement inquire specified a mini clothing shaper pinch nary existent creation talent aliases acquisition to creation their uniforms?'
But she adds that Boss was an 'active supporter' of nan Nazis and happily utilized forced labour successful his factories.
He was heavy fined aft nan warfare for having financially benefited from nan Nazi authorities and for having been friends pinch high-ranking Nazis.
In 2011, Hugo Boss apologised for utilizing forced labour successful its factories.
The firm's founder, Hugo Ferdinand Boss, was a personnel of nan Nazi statement and did manufacture immoderate of nan Nazis' uniforms
Hitler invented nan motorway
Another communal belief astir nan Nazis is that Adolf Hitler, contempt his monstrous crimes, invented nan motorway.
Ms Teeuwisse swifty demolishes some this and nan declare that Hitler brought nan motorway to Germany by opening nan celebrated autobahn.
In fact, motorways opened successful some New York and Italy earlier Hitler roseate to power.
The first conception of roadworthy that could beryllium called an autobahn aliases motorway opened successful Germany successful 1921.
Another communal belief astir nan Nazis is that Adolf Hitler - contempt his monstrous crimes - invented nan motorway
Eleven years later a longer agelong opened successful 1932, nan twelvemonth earlier Hitler came to power.
And nan motorway that opened successful 1933 – aft nan Nazis had taken power – had mostly been nether building since 1931.
When nan building of nan first autobahn conception nether Nazi norm did begin, Hitler was coming astatine a immense ceremonial that reinforced nan conception it had been his idea.
A image taken successful 1935 shows him successful a convoy of cars arsenic hundreds lined nan roadworthy to spot him unfastened nan newly-built autobahn from Munich to Salzburg.
Two bullets collided successful mid-air successful nan First World War
It is simply a image that has done nan rounds connected societal media sites for years.
Two bullets are seen fused together, aft apparently colliding during nan conflict of Gallipoli successful nan First World War.
It has agelong near galore to wonderment what happened to nan opposing soldiers who fired them.
It is simply a image that has done nan rounds connected societal media sites for years. Two bullets are seen fused together, aft apparently colliding during nan conflict of Gallipoli successful nan First World War
However, nan bullets intelligibly did not collide successful mid-air. Ms Teeuwisse highlights nan deficiency of 'rifling' marks connected 1 of nan projectiles.
The marks are obtained erstwhile a slug travels done a barrel, which is ne'er perfectly smooth.
Given that nan pierced slug is unblemished, it must person been changeable earlier being fired.
Ms Teeuwisse speculates that it whitethorn person been stored successful a cartridge container aliases soldier's bandolier.
Such an occurrence is overmuch little uncommon than 2 fired bullets colliding successful mid-air.
The image was taken wherever nan bullets were connected display, successful a depository successful Turkey.
Nelson's past words were 'Kiss me, Hardy'
Admiral Horatio Nelson was revered some successful life and successful death. The majestic subject fig was nan vanquisher of nan French and nan leader of nan Battle of Trafalgar.
It was that conflict that proved to beryllium his last. Having been deed by a French sniper's bullet, he died successful his comrades' arms.
It has agelong been believed his past words, uttered to his bully friend Thomas Hardy, were 'kiss me, Hardy'.
But nan historiographer points retired explains that, though Nelson did inquire his friend to buss him, nan petition was not his last phrase.
The witnesser accounts of his passing recount that he was kissed connected some nan feature and forehead by his friend.
But his parting words to Hardy earlier he slipped distant were 'God bless you, Hardy'.
Admiral Horatio Nelson was revered some successful life and successful death. The majestic subject fig was nan vanquisher of nan French, and nan leader of nan Battle of Trafalgar
Witnesses, including surgeon William Beatty and chaplain Alexander Scott, each mention this infinitesimal successful their accounts.
However, it is unclear what precisely nan very past point was that Nelson said.
He had many times said 'thank God I person done my duty', but Dr Beatty was not location erstwhile Nelson mislaid nan expertise to speak truthful it is not known if these were his last words.
The admiral besides kept asking for thing to drink, personification to instrumentality him and for personification to swipe his chest, truthful immoderate of those requests whitethorn person been nan past point he said.
Ms Teeuwisse besides reminds readers that Nelson was dying arsenic nan conflict pinch French was still ongoing, and truthful it is not astonishing that nan witnesser accounts of his last moments disagree successful immoderate areas.
The pyramids were built by slaves
It is simply a show often seen successful films: slaves being whipped and threatened pinch their lives arsenic they haul nan stones of nan pyramids up slopes.
The belief that nan ancient Egyptian structures were built by slaves is simply a communal one.
But location is nary grounds that it is true.
Ms Teeuwisse writes: 'Yes, location were slaves successful ancient Egypt and location on nan accumulation statement they were very apt progressive successful nan building of nan pyramids – aft each slavery was portion of regular life.
Jewish slaves are seen being guarded by men pinch whips arsenic they build nan pyramids successful ancient Egypt
'So I don't deliberation we tin opportunity they had perfectly thing to do pinch nan building of nan pyramids, but location is nary grounds that they really built them.'
The historiographer says that nan story was astir apt calved because personification had misunderstood what ancient Greek historiographer Herodotus had said.
He wrote of 'gangs of a 100 1000 men' dragging stones to their destinations.
But, successful caller years, archaeologists person uncovered grounds that nan workers were not slaves.
One illustration is nan workers' metropolis that was established adjacent nan pyramids. 'It didn't look for illustration a spot wherever you'd support slaves,' Ms Teeuwisse writes.
General position of nan ancient Egyptian pyramids, from nan Giza Plateau
It boasted well-made streets and grounds of some food preparation, nan butchering of cattle and baking. 'These workers enjoyed a bully fare of high-quality food', nan historiographer adds.
This nutrient would not person been wasted connected 'common' slaves.
Graffiti recovered connected immoderate of nan buildings besides highlights really nan men had a consciousness of humour. One group called themselves 'the drunkards of Menkaure'.
Ms Teeuwisse concludes: 'There is simply a batch of grounds that shows nan pyramids were built by well-looked-after labourerers, and nary grounds astatine each they were built by slaves.'
Fake History: 101 things that ne'er happened, by Jo Hedwig Teeuwisse, is published by WH Allen